Local Taxation And Fiscal Matters

Lifted From Republic Act 7160

LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES 1991

BOOK II
LOCAL TAXATION AND FISCAL MATTERS

TITLE I
LOCAL GOVERNMENT TAXATION

CHAPTER I
General Provisions

Section 128. Scope. – The provisions herein shall govern the exercise by provinces, cities, municipalities, and barangays of their taxing and other revenue-raising powers.

Section 129. Power to Create Sources of Revenue. – Each local government unit shall exercise its power to create its own sources of revenue and to levy taxes, fees, and charges subject to the provisions herein, consistent with the basic policy of local autonomy. Such taxes, fees, and charges shall accrue exclusively to the local government units.

Section 130. Fundamental Principles. – The following fundamental principles shall govern the exercise of the taxing and other revenue-raising powers of local government units:

(a) Taxation shall be uniform in each local government unit;

(b) Taxes, fees, charges and other impositions shall:

(1) be equitable and based as far as practicable on the taxpayer’s ability to pay;

(2) be levied and collected only for public purposes;

(3) not be unjust, excessive, oppressive, or confiscatory;

(4) not be contrary to law, public policy, national economic policy, or in the restraint of trade;

(c) The collection of local taxes, fees, charges and other impositions shall in no case be let to any private person;

(d) The revenue collected pursuant to the provisions of this Code shall inure solely to the benefit of, and be subject to the disposition by, the local government unit levying the tax, fee, charge or other imposition unless otherwise specifically provided herein; and,

(e) Each local government unit shall, as far as practicable, evolve a progressive system of taxation.

Section 131. Definition of Terms. – When used in this Title, the term:

(a) “Agricultural Product” includes the yield of the soil, such as corn, rice, wheat, rye, hay. coconuts, sugarcane, tobacco, root crops, vegetables, fruits, flowers, and their by-products; ordinary salt; all kinds of fish; poultry; and livestock and animal products, whether in their original form or not.

The phrase “whether in their original form or not” refers to the transformation of said products by the farmer, fisherman, producer or owner through the application of processes to preserve or otherwise to prepare said products for market such as freezing, drying, salting, smoking, or stripping for purposes of preserving or otherwise preparing said products for market;

(b) “Amusement” is a pleasurable diversion and entertainment. It is synonymous to relaxation, avocation, pastime, or fun;

(c) “Amusement Places” include theaters, cinemas, concert halls, circuses and other places of amusement where one seeks admission to entertain oneself by seeing or viewing the show or performances;

(d) “Business” means trade or commercial activity regularly engaged in as a means of livelihood or with a view to profit;

(e) “Banks and other financial institutions” include non-bank financial intermediaries, lending investors, finance and investment companies, pawnshops, money shops, insurance companies, stock markets, stock brokers and dealers in securities and foreign exchange, as defined under applicable laws, or rules and regulations thereunder;

(f) “Capital Investment” is the capital which a person employs in any undertaking, or which he contributes to the capital of a partnership, corporation, or any other juridical entity or association in a particular taxing jurisdiction;

(g) “Charges” refers to pecuniary liability, as rents or fees against persons or property;

(h) “Contractor” includes persons, natural or juridical, not subject to professional tax under Section 139 of this Code, whose activity consists essentially of the sale of all kinds of services for a fee, regardless of whether or not the performance of the service calls for the exercise or use of the physical or mental faculties of such contractor or his employees.

As used in this Section, the term “contractor” shall include general engineering, general building and specialty contractors as defined under applicable laws; filling, demolition and salvage works contractors; proprietors or operators of mine drilling apparatus; proprietors or operators of dockyards; persons engaged in the installation of water system, and gas or electric light, heat, or power; proprietors or operators of smelting plants, engraving, plating, and plastic lamination establishments; proprietors or operators of establishments for repairing, repainting, upholstering, washing or greasing of vehicles, heavy equipment, vulcanizing, recapping and battery charging; proprietors or operators of furniture shops and establishments for planing or surfacing and recutting of lumber, and sawmills under contract to saw or cut logs belonging to others; proprietors or operators of dry cleaning or dyeing establishments, steam laundries, and laundries using washing machines; proprietors or owners of shops for the repair of any kind of mechanical and electrical devices, instruments, apparatus, or furniture and shoe repairing by machine or any mechanical contrivance; proprietors or operators of establishments or lots for parking purposes; proprietors or operators of tailor shops, dress shops, milliners and hatters, beauty parlors, barbershops, massage clinics, sauna, Turkish and Swedish baths, slenderizing and building salons and similar establishments; photographic studios; funeral parlors; proprietors or operators of hotels, motels, and lodging houses; proprietors or operators of arrastre and stevedoring, warehousing, or forwarding establishments; master plumbers, smiths, and house or sign painters; printers, bookbinders, lithographers; publishers except those engaged in the publication or printing of any newspaper, magazine, review or bulletin which appears at regular intervals with fixed prices for subscription and sale and which is not devoted principally to the publication and advertisements; business agents, private detective or watchman agencies, commercial and immigration brokers, and cinematographic film owners, lessors and distributors.

(i) “Corporation” includes partnerships, no matter how created or organized, joint-stock companies, joint accounts (cuentas en participacion), associations or insurance companies but does not include general professional partnerships and a joint venture or consortium formed for the purpose of undertaking construction projects or engaging in petroleum, coal, geothermal, and other energy operations pursuant to an operating or consortium agreement under a service contract with the government. General professional partnership are partnerships formed by persons for the sole purpose of exercising their common profession, no part of the income of which is derived from engaging in any trade or business.

The term “resident foreign” when applied to a corporation means a foreign corporation not otherwise organized under the laws of the Philippines but engaged in trade or business within the Philippines;

(j) “Countryside and Barangay Business Enterprise” refers to any business entity, association, or cooperative registered under the provisions of Republic Act Numbered Sixty-eight hundred ten (R.A. No. 6810), otherwise known as “Magna Carta For Countryside And Barangay Business Enterprises (Kalakalan 20)”;

(k) “Dealer” means one whose business is to buy and sell merchandise, goods, and chattels as a merchant. He stands immediately between the producer or manufacturer and the consumer and depends for his profit not upon the labor he bestows upon his commodities but upon the skill and foresight with which he watches the market;

(l) “Fee” means a charge fixed by law or ordinance for the regulation or inspection of a business or activity;

(m) “Franchise” is a right or privilege, affected with public interest which is conferred upon private persons or corporations, under such terms and conditions as the government and its political subdivisions may impose in the interest of public welfare, security, and safety;

(n) “Gross Sales or Receipts” include the total amount of money or its equivalent representing the contract price, compensation or service fee, including the amount charged or materials supplied with the services and deposits or advance payments actually or constructively received during the taxable quarter for the services performed or to be performed for another person excluding discounts if determinable at the time of sales, sales return, excise tax, and value-added tax (VAT);

(o) “Manufacturer” includes every person who, by physical or chemical process, alters the exterior texture or form or inner substance of any raw material or manufactured or partially manufactured product in such manner as to have been put in its original condition, or who by any such process alters the quality of any such raw material or manufactured or partially manufactured products so as to reduce it to marketable shape or prepare it for any of the use of industry, or who by any such process combines any such raw material or manufactured or partially manufactured products with other materials or products of the same or of different kinds and in such manner that the finished products of such process or manufacture can be put to a special use or uses to which such raw material or manufactured or partially manufactured products in their original condition could not have been put, and who in addition alters such raw material or manufactured or partially manufactured products, or combines the same to produce such finished products for the purpose of their sale or distribution to others and not for his own use or consumption;

(p) “Marginal Farmer or Fisherman” refers to an individual engaged in subsistence farming or fishing which shall be limited to the sale, barter or exchange of agricultural or marine products produced by himself and his immediate family;

(q) “Motor Vehicle” means any vehicle propelled by any power other than muscular power using the public roads, but excluding road rollers, trolley cars, street-sweepers, sprinklers, lawn mowers, bulldozers, graders, fork-lifts, amphibian trucks, and cranes if not used on public roads, vehicles which run only on rails or tracks, and tractors, trailers, and traction engines of all kinds used exclusively for agricultural purposes;

(r) “Municipal Waters” includes not only streams, lakes, and tidal waters within the municipality, not being the subject of private ownership and not comprised within the national parks, public forest, timber lands, forest reserves or fishery reserves, but also marine waters included between two lines drawn perpendicularly to the general coastline from points where the boundary lines of the municipality or city touch the sea at low tide and a third line parallel with the general coastline and fifteen (15) kilometers from it. Where two (2) municipalities are so situated on the opposite shores that there is less than fifteen (15) kilometers of marine waters between them, the third line shall be equally distant from opposite shores of their respective municipalities;

(s) “Operator” includes the owner, manager, administrator, or any other person who operates or is responsible for the operation of a business establishment or undertaking;

(t) “Peddler” means any person who, either for himself or on commission, travels from place to place and sells his goods or offers to sell and deliver the same. Whether a peddler is a wholesale peddler or a retail peddler of a particular commodity shall be determined from the definition of wholesale dealer or retail dealer as provided in this Title;

(u) “Persons” means every natural or juridical being, susceptible of rights and obligations or of being the subject of legal relations;

(v) “Residents” refer to natural persons who have their habitual residence in the province, city, or municipality where they exercise their civil rights and fulfill their civil obligations, and to juridical persons for which the law or any other provisions creating or recognizing them fixes their residence in a particular province, city, or municipality. In the absence of such law, juridical persons are residents of the province, city, or municipality where they have their legal residence or principal place of business or where they conduct their principal business or occupation;

(w) “Retail” means a sale where the purchaser buys the commodity for his own consumption, irrespective of the quantity of the commodity sold;

(x) “Vessel” includes every type of boat, craft, or other artificial contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on water;

(y) “Wharfage” means a fee assessed against the cargo of a vessel engaged in foreign or domestic trade based on quantity, weight, or measure received and/or discharged by vessel; and

(z) “Wholesale” means a sale where the purchaser buys or imports the commodities for resale to persons other than the end user regardless of the quantity of the transaction.

Section 132. Local Taxing Authority. – The power to impose a tax, fee, or charge or to generate revenue under this Code shall be exercised by the sanggunian of the local government unit concerned through an appropriate ordinance.

Section 133. Common Limitations on the Taxing Powers of Local Government Units. – Unless otherwise provided herein, the exercise of the taxing powers of provinces, cities, municipalities, and barangays shall not extend to the levy of the following:

(a) Income tax, except when levied on banks and other financial institutions;

(b) Documentary stamp tax;

(c) Taxes on estates, inheritance, gifts, legacies and other acquisitions mortis causa, except as otherwise provided herein;

(d) Customs duties, registration fees of vessel and wharfage on wharves, tonnage dues, and all other kinds of customs fees, charges and dues except wharfage on wharves constructed and maintained by the local government unit concerned;

(e) Taxes, fees, and charges and other impositions upon goods carried into or out of, or passing through, the territorial jurisdictions of local government units in the guise of charges for wharfage, tolls for bridges or otherwise, or other taxes, fees, or charges in any form whatsoever upon such goods or merchandise;

(f) Taxes, fees or charges on agricultural and aquatic products when sold by marginal farmers or fishermen;

(g) Taxes on business enterprises certified to by the Board of Investments as pioneer or non-pioneer for a period of six (6) and four (4) years, respectively from the date of registration;

(h) Excise taxes on articles enumerated under the national Internal Revenue Code, as amended, and taxes, fees or charges on petroleum products;

(i) Percentage or value-added tax (VAT) on sales, barters or exchanges or similar transactions on goods or services except as otherwise provided herein;

(j) Taxes on the gross receipts of transportation contractors and persons engaged in the transportation of passengers or freight by hire and common carriers by air, land or water, except as provided in this Code;

(k) Taxes on premiums paid by way or reinsurance or retrocession;

(l) Taxes, fees or charges for the registration of motor vehicles and for the issuance of all kinds of licenses or permits for the driving thereof, except tricycles;

(m) Taxes, fees, or other charges on Philippine products actually exported, except as otherwise provided herein;

(n) Taxes, fees, or charges, on Countryside and Barangay Business Enterprises and cooperatives duly registered under R.A. No. 6810 and Republic Act Numbered Sixty-nine hundred thirty-eight (R.A. No. 6938) otherwise known as the “Cooperative Code of the Philippines” respectively; and

(o) Taxes, fees or charges of any kind on the National Government, its agencies and instrumentalities, and local government units.

CHAPTER II
Specific Provisions on the Taxing and Other Revenue-Raising Powers of Local Government Units

ARTICLE I
Provinces

Section 134. Scope of Taxing Powers. – Except as otherwise provided in this Code, the province may levy only the taxes, fees, and charges as provided in this Article.

Section 135. Tax on Transfer of Real Property Ownership.

(a) The province may impose a tax on the sale , donation, barter, or on any other mode of transferring ownership or title of real property at the rate of not more than fifty percent (50%) of the one percent (1%) of the total consideration involved in the acquisition of the property or of the fair market value in case the monetary consideration involved in the transfer is not substantial, whichever is higher. The sale, transfer or other disposition of real property pursuant to R.A. No. 6657 shall be exempt from this tax.

(b) For this purpose, the Register of Deeds of the province concerned shall, before registering any deed, require the presentation of the evidence of payment of this tax. The provincial assessor shall likewise make the same requirement before cancelling an old tax declaration and issuing a new one in place thereof, Notaries public shall furnish the provincial treasurer with a copy of any deed transferring ownership or title to any real property within thirty (30) days from the date of notarization.

It shall be the duty of the seller, donor, transferor, executor or administrator to pay the tax herein imposed within sixty (60) days from the date of the execution of the deed or from the date of the decedent’s death.

Section 136. Tax on Business of Printing and Publication. – The province may impose a tax on the business of persons engaged in the printing and/or publication of books, cards, posters, leaflets, handbills, certificates, receipts, pamphlets, and others of similar nature, at a rate not exceeding fifty percent (50%) of one percent (1%) of the gross annual receipts for the preceding calendar year.

In the case of a newly started business, the tax shall not exceed one-twentieth (1/20) of one percent (1%) of the capital investment. In the succeeding calendar year, regardless of when the business started to operate, the tax shall be based on the gross receipts for the preceding calendar year, or any fraction thereof, as provided herein.

The receipts from the printing and/or publishing of books or other reading materials prescribed by the Department of Education, Culture and Sports as school texts or references shall be exempt from the tax herein imposed.

Section 137. Franchise Tax. – Notwithstanding any exemption granted by any law or other special law, the province may impose a tax on businesses enjoying a franchise, at the rate not exceeding fifty percent (50%) of one percent (1%) of the gross annual receipts for the preceding calendar year based on the incoming receipt, or realized, within its territorial jurisdiction.

In the case of a newly started business, the tax shall not exceed one-twentieth (1/20) of one percent (1%) of the capital investment. In the succeeding calendar year, regardless of when the business started to operate, the tax shall be based on the gross receipts for the preceding calendar year, or any fraction thereon, as provided herein.

Section 138. Tax on Sand, Gravel and Other Quarry Resources. – The province may levy and collect not more than ten percent (10%) of fair market value in the locality per cubic meter of ordinary stones, sand, gravel, earth, and other quarry resources, as defined under the National Internal Revenue Code, as amended, extracted from public lands or from the beds of seas, lakes, rivers, streams, creeks, and other public waters within its territorial jurisdiction.

The permit to extract sand, gravel and other quarry resources shall be issued exclusively by the provincial governor, pursuant to the ordinance of the sangguniang panlalawigan.

The proceeds of the tax on sand, gravel and other quarry resources shall be distributed as follows:

(1) Province – Thirty percent (30%);

(2) Component City or Municipality where the sand, gravel, and other quarry resources are extracted – Thirty percent (30%); and

(3) Barangay where the sand, gravel, and other quarry resources are extracted – Forty percent (40%).

Section 139. Professional Tax.

(a) The province may levy an annual professional tax on each person engaged in the exercise or practice of his profession requiring government examination at such amount and reasonable classification as the sangguniang panlalawigan may determine but shall in no case exceed Three hundred pesos (P300.00).

(b) Every person legally authorized to practice his profession shall pay the professional tax to the province where he practices his profession or where he maintains his principal office in case he practices his profession in several places: Provided, however, That such person who has paid the corresponding professional tax shall be entitled to practice his profession in any part of the Philippines without being subjected to any other national or local tax, license, or fee for the practice of such profession.

(c) Any individual or corporation employing a person subject to professional tax shall require payment by that person of the tax on his profession before employment and annually thereafter.

(d) The professional tax shall be payable annually, on or before the thirty-first (31st) day of January. Any person first beginning to practice a profession after the month of January must, however, pay the full tax before engaging therein. A line of profession does not become exempt even if conducted with some other profession for which the tax has been paid. Professionals exclusively employed in the government shall be exempt from the payment of this tax.

(e) Any person subject to the professional tax shall write in deeds, receipts, prescriptions, reports, books of account, plans and designs, surveys and maps, as the case may be, the number of the official receipt issued to him.

Section 140. Amusement Tax.

(a) The province may levy an amusement tax to be collected from the proprietors, lessees, or operators of theaters, cinemas, concert halls, circuses, boxing stadia, and other places of amusement at a rate of not more than thirty percent (30%) of the gross receipts from admission fees.

(b) In the case of theaters or cinemas, the tax shall first be deducted and withheld by their proprietors, lessees, or operators and paid to the provincial treasurer before the gross receipts are divided between said proprietors, lessees, or operators and the distributors of the cinematographic films.

(c) The holding of operas, concerts, dramas, recitals, painting and art exhibitions, flower shows, musical programs, literary and oratorical presentations, except pop, rock, or similar concerts shall be exempt from the payment of the tax hereon imposed.

(d) The sangguniang panlalawigan may prescribe the time, manner, terms and conditions for the payment of tax. In case of fraud or failure to pay the tax, the sangguniang panlalawigan may impose such surcharges, interest and penalties as it may deem appropriate.

(e) The proceeds from the amusement tax shall be shared equally by the province and the municipality where such amusement places are located.

Section 141. Annual Fixed Tax For Every Delivery Truck or Van of Manufacturers or Producers, Wholesalers of, Dealers, or Retailers in, Certain Products.

(a) The province may levy an annual fixed tax for every truck, van or any vehicle used by manufacturers, producers, wholesalers, dealers or retailers in the delivery or distribution of distilled spirits, fermented liquors, soft drinks, cigars and cigarettes, and other products as may be determined by the sangguniang panlalawigan, to sales outlets, or consumers, whether directly or indirectly, within the province in an amount not exceeding Five hundred pesos (P500.00).

(b) The manufacturers, producers, wholesalers, dealers and retailers referred to in the immediately foregoing paragraph shall be exempt from the tax on peddlers prescribed elsewhere in this Code.

ARTICLE II
Municipalities

Section 142. Scope of Taxing Powers. – Except as otherwise provided in this Code, municipalities may levy taxes, fees, and charges not otherwise levied by provinces.

Section 143. Tax on Business. – The municipality may impose taxes on the following businesses:

(a) On manufacturers, assemblers, repackers, processors, brewers, distillers, rectifiers, and compounders of liquors, distilled spirits, and wines or manufacturers of any article of commerce of whatever kind or nature, in accordance with the following schedule:

With gross sales or receipts for the preceding calendar year in the amount of: Amount of Tax Per Annum
Less than 10,000.00 165.00
P 10,000.00 or more but less than 15,000.00 220.00
15,000.00 or more but less than 20,000.00 202.00
20,000.00 or more but less than 30,000.00 440.00
30,000.00 or more but less than 40,000.00 660.00
40,000.00 or more but less than 50,000.00 825.00
50,000.00 or more but less than 75,000.00 1,320.00
75,000.00 or more but less than 100,000.00 1,650.00
100,000.00 or more but less than 150,000.00 2,200.00
150,000.00 or more but less than 200,000.00 2,750.00
200,000.00 or more but less than 300,000.00 3,850.00
300,000.00 or more but less than 500,000.00 5,500.00
500,000.00 or more but less than 750,000.00 8,000.00
750,000.00 or more but less than 1,000,000.00 10,000.00
1,000,000.00 or more but less than 2,000,000.00 13,750.00
2,000,000.00 or more but less than 3,000,000.00 16,500.00
3,000,000.00 or more but less than 4,000,000.00 19,000.00
4,000,000.00 or more but less than 5,000,000.00 23,100.00
5,000,000.00 or more but less than 6,500,000.00 24,375.00
6,000,000.00 or more at a rate not exceeding thirty-seven and a half percent (37½%) of one percent (1%)

(b) On wholesalers, distributors, or dealers in any article of commerce of whatever kind or nature in accordance with the following schedule:

With gross sales or receipts for the preceding calendar year in the amount of: Amount of Tax Per Annum
Less than 1,000.00 18.00
P 1,000.00 or more but less than 2,000.00 33.00
2,000.00 or more but less than 3,000.00 50.00
3,000.00 or more but less than 4,000.00 72.00
4,000.00 or more but less than 5,000.00 100.00
5,000.00 or more but less than 6,000.00 121.00
6,000.00 or more but less than 7,000.00 143.00
7,000.00 or more but less than 8,000.00 165.00
8,000.00 or more but less than 10,000.00 187.00
10,000.00 or more but less than 15,000.00 220.00
15,000.00 or more but less than 20,000.00 275.00
20,000.00 or more but less than 30,000.00 330.00
30,000.00 or more but less than 40,000.00 440.00
40,000.00 or more but less than 50,000.00 660.00
50,000.00 or more but less than 75,000.00 990.00
75,000.00 or more but less than 100,000.00 1,320.00
100,000.00 or more but less than 150,000.00 1,870.00
150,000.00 or more but less than 200,000.00 2,420.00
200,000.00 or more but less than 300,000.00 3,300.00
300,000.00 or more but less than 500,000.00 4,400.00
500,000.00 or more but less than 750,000.00 6,600.00
750,000.00 or more but less than 1,000,000.00 8,800.00
1,000,000.00 or more but less than 2,000,000.00 10,000.00
2,000,000.00 or more at a rate not exceeding fifty percent (50%) of one percent (1%).

(c) On exporters, and on manufacturers , millers, producers, wholesalers, distributors, dealers or retailers of essential commodities enumerated hereunder at a rate not exceeding one-half (½) of the rates prescribed under subsection (a), (b) and (d) of this Section:

(1) Rice and corn;

(2) Wheat or cassava flour, meat, dairy products, locally manufactured, processed or preserved food, sugar, salt and other agricultural, marine, and fresh water products, whether in their original state or not;

(3) Cooking oil and cooking gas;

(4) Laundry soap, detergents, and medicine;

(5) Agricultural implements. equipment and post-harvest facilities, fertilizers, pesticides, insecticides, herbicides and other farm inputs;

(6) Poultry feeds and other animal feeds;

(7) School supplies; and

(8) Cement.

(d) On retailers.

With gross sales or receipts for the preceding calendar year in the amount of: Rate of Tax Per Annum
P400,000.00 or less 2%
more than P400,000.00 1%

Provided, however, That barangays shall have the exclusive power to levy taxes, as provided under Section 152 hereof, on gross sales or receipts of the preceding calendar year of Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00) or less, in the case of cities, and Thirty thousand pesos (P30,000.00) or less, in the case of municipalities.

(e) On contractors and other independent contractors, in accordance with the following schedule:

With gross sales or receipts for the preceding calendar year in the amount of: Amount of Tax Per Annum
Less than 5,000.00 27.50
P 5,000.00 or more but less than P 10,000.00 61.60
10,000.00 or more but less than 15,000.00 104.50
15,000.00 or more but less than 20,000.00 165.00
20,000.00 or more but less than 30,000.00 275.00
30,000.00 or more but less than 40,000.00 385.00
40,000.00 or more but less than 50,000.00 550.00
50,000.00 or more but less than 75,000.00 880.00
75,000.00 or more but less than 100,000.00 1,320.00
100,000.00 or more but less than 150,000.00 1,980.00
150,000.00 or more but less than 200,000.00 2,640.00
200,000.00 or more but less than 250,000.00 3,630.00
250,000.00 or more but less than 300,000.00 4,620.00
300,000.00 or more but less than 400,000.00 6,160.00
400,000.00 or more but less than 500,000.00 8,250.00
500,000.00 or more but less than 750,000.00 9,250.00
750,000.00 or more but less than 1,000,000.00 10,250.00
1,000,000.00 or more but less than 2,000,000.00 11,500.00
2,000,000.00 or more at a rate not exceeding fifty percent (50%) of one percent (1%)

(f) On banks and other financial institutions, at a rate not exceeding fifty percent (50%) of one percent (1%) on the gross receipts of the preceding calendar year derived from interest, commissions and discounts from lending activities, income from financial leasing, dividends, rentals on property and profit from exchange or sale of property, insurance premium.

(g) On peddlers engaged in the sale of any merchandise or article of commerce, at a rate not exceeding Fifty pesos (P50.00) per peddler annually.

(h) On any business, not otherwise specified in the preceding paragraphs, which the sanggunian concerned may deem proper to tax: Provided, That on any business subject to the excise, value-added or percentage tax under the National Internal Revenue Code, as amended, the rate of tax shall not exceed two percent (2%) of gross sales or receipts of the preceding calendar year.

The sanggunian concerned may prescribe a schedule of graduated tax rates but in no case to exceed the rates prescribed herein.

Section 144. Rates of Tax within the Metropolitan Manila Area. – The municipalities within the Metropolitan Manila Area may levy taxes at rates which shall not exceed by fifty percent (50%) the maximum rates prescribed in the preceding Section.

Section 145. Retirement of Business. – A business subject to tax pursuant to the preceding sections shall, upon termination thereof, submit a sworn statement of its gross sales or receipts for the current year. If the tax paid during the year be less than the tax due on said gross sales or receipts of the current year, the difference shall be paid before the business is considered officially retired.

Section 146. Payment of Business Taxes.

(a) The taxes imposed under Section 143 shall be payable for every separate or distinct establishment or place where business subject to the tax is conducted and one line of business does not become exempt by being conducted with some other business for which such tax has been paid. The tax on a business must be paid by the person conducting the same.

(b) In cases where a person conducts or operates two (2) or more of the businesses mentioned in Section 143 of this Code which are subject to the same rate of tax, the tax shall be computed on the combined total gross sales or receipts of the said two (2) or more related businesses.

(c) In cases where a person conducts or operates two (2) or more businesses mentioned in Section 143 of this Code which are subject to different rates of tax, the gross sales or receipts of each business shall be separately reported for the purpose of computing the tax due from each business.

Section 147. Fees and Charges. – The municipality may impose and collect such reasonable fees and charges on business and occupation and, except as reserved to the province in Section 139 of this Code, on the practice of any profession or calling, commensurate with the cost of regulation, inspection and licensing before any person may engage in such business or occupation, or practice such profession or calling.

Section 148. Fees for Sealing and Licensing of Weights and Measures.

(a) The municipality may levy fees for the sealing and licensing of weights and measures at such reasonable rates as shall be prescribed by the sangguniang bayan.

(b) The sangguniang bayan shall prescribe the necessary regulations for the use of such weights and measures, subject to such guidelines as shall be prescribed by the Department of Science and Technology. The sanggunian concerned shall, by appropriate ordinance, penalize fraudulent practices and unlawful possession or use of instruments of weights and measures and prescribe the criminal penalty therefor in accordance with the provisions of this Code. Provided, however, That the sanggunian concerned may authorize the municipal treasurer to settle an offense not involving the commission of fraud before a case therefor is filed in court, upon payment of a compromise penalty of not less than Two hundred pesos (P200.00).

Section 149. Fishery Rentals, Fees and Charges.

(a) Municipalities shall have the exclusive authority to grant fishery privileges in the municipal waters and impose rentals, fees or charges therefor in accordance with the provisions of this Section.

(b) The sangguniang bayan may:

(1) Grant fishery privileges to erect fish corrals, oysters, mussels or other aquatic beds or bangus fry areas, within a definite zone of the municipal waters, as determined by it: Provided, however, That duly registered organizations and cooperatives of marginal fishermen shall have the preferential right to such fishery privileges: Provided, further, That the sangguniang bayan may require a public bidding in conformity with and pursuant to an ordinance for the grant of such privileges: Provided, finally, That in the absence of such organizations and cooperatives or their failure to exercise their preferential right, other parties may participate in the public bidding in conformity with the above cited procedure.

(2) Grant the privilege to gather, take or catch bangus fry, prawn fry or kawag-kawag or fry of other species and fish from the municipal waters by nets, traps or other fishing gears to marginal fishermen free of any rental, fee, charge or any other imposition whatsoever.

(3) Issue licenses for the operation of fishing vessels of three (3) tons or less for which purpose the sangguniang bayan shall promulgate rules and regulations regarding the issuances of such licenses to qualified applicants under existing laws.

Provided, however, That the sanggunian concerned shall, by appropriate ordinance, penalize the use of explosives, noxious or poisonous substances, electricity, muro-ami, and other deleterious methods of fishing and prescribe a criminal penalty therefor in accordance with the provisions of this Code: Provided, finally, That the sanggunian concerned shall have the authority to prosecute any violation of the provisions of applicable fishery laws.

Section 150. Situs of the Tax.

(a) For purposes of collection of the taxes under Section 143 of this Code, manufacturers, assemblers, repackers, brewers, distillers, rectifiers and compounders of liquor, distilled spirits and wines, millers, producers, exporters, wholesalers, distributors, dealers, contractors, banks and other financial institutions, and other businesses, maintaining or operating branch or sales outlet elsewhere shall record the sale in the branch or sales outlet making the sale or transaction, and the tax thereon shall accrue and shall be paid to the municipality where such branch or sales outlet is located. In cases where there is no such branch or sales outlet in the city or municipality where the sale or transaction is made, the sale shall be duly recorded in the principal office and the taxes due shall accrue and shall be paid to such city or municipality.

(b) The following sales allocation shall apply to manufacturers, assemblers, contractors, producers, and exporters with factories, project offices, plants, and plantations in the pursuit of their business:

(1) Thirty percent (30%) of all sales recorded in the principal office shall be taxable by the city or municipality where the principal office is located; and

(2) Seventy percent (70%) of all sales recorded in the principal office shall be taxable by the city or municipality where the factory, project office, plant, or plantation is located.

(c) In case of a plantation located at a place other than the place where the factory is located, said seventy percent (70%) mentioned in subparagraph (b) of subsection (2) above shall be divided as follows:

(1) Sixty percent (60%) to the city or municipality where the factory is located; and

(2) Forty percent (40%) to the city or municipality where the plantation is located.

(d) In cases where a manufacturer, assembler, producer, exporter or contractor has two (2) or more factories, project offices, plants, or plantations located in different localities, the seventy percent (70%) sales allocation mentioned in subparagraph (b) of subsection (2) above shall be prorated among the localities where the factories, project offices, plants, and plantations are located in proportion to their respective volumes of production during the period for which the tax is due.

(e) The foregoing sales allocation shall be applied irrespective of whether or not sales are made in the locality where the factory, project office, plant, or plantation is located.

ARTICLE III
Cities

Section 151. Scope of Taxing Powers. – Except as otherwise provided in this Code, the city, may levy the taxes, fees, and charges which the province or municipality may impose: Provided, however, That the taxes, fees and charges levied and collected by highly urbanized and independent component cities shall accrue to them and distributed in accordance with the provisions of this Code.

The rates of taxes that the city may levy may exceed the maximum rates allowed for the province or municipality by not more than fifty percent (50%) except the rates of professional and amusement taxes.

ARTICLE IV
Barangays

Section 152. Scope of Taxing Powers. – The barangays may levy taxes, fees, and charges, as provided in this Article, which shall exclusively accrue to them:

(a) Taxes – On stores or retailers with fixed business establishments with gross sales of receipts of the preceding calendar year of Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00) or less, in the case of cities and Thirty thousand pesos (P30,000.00) or less, in the case of municipalities, at a rate not exceeding one percent (1%) on such gross sales or receipts.

(b) Service Fees or Charges. – Barangays may collect reasonable fees or charges for services rendered in connection with the regulations or the use of barangay-owned properties or service facilities such as palay, copra, or tobacco dryers.

(c) Barangay Clearance. – No city or municipality may issue any license or permit for any business or activity unless a clearance is first obtained from the barangay where such business or activity is located or conducted. For such clearance, the sangguniang barangay may impose a reasonable fee. The application for clearance shall be acted upon within seven (7) working days from the filing thereof. In the event that the clearance is not issued within the said period, the city or municipality may issue the said license or permit.

(d) Other fees and Charges. – The barangay may levy reasonable fees and charges:

(1) On commercial breeding of fighting cocks, cockfights and cockpits;

(2) On places of recreation which charge admission fees; and

(3) On billboards, signboards, neon signs, and outdoor advertisements.

ARTICLE V
Common Revenue-Raising Powers

Section 153. Service Fees and Charges. – Local government units may impose and collect such reasonable fees and charges for services rendered.

Section 154. Public Utility Charges. – Local government units may fix the rates for the operation of public utilities owned, operated and maintained by them within their jurisdiction.

Section 155. Toll Fees or Charges. – The sanggunian concerned may prescribe the terms and conditions and fix the rates for the imposition of toll fees or charges for the use of any public road, pier, or wharf, waterway, bridge, ferry or telecommunication system funded and constructed by the local government unit concerned: Provided, That no such toll fees or charges shall be collected from officers and enlisted men of the Armed Forces of the Philippines and members of the Philippine National Police on mission, post office personnel delivering mail, physically-handicapped, and disabled citizens who are sixty-five (65) years or older.

When public safety and welfare so requires, the sanggunian concerned may discontinue the collection of the tolls, and thereafter the said facility shall be free and open for public use.

ARTICLE VI
Community Tax

Section 156. Community Tax. – Cities or municipalities may levy a community tax in accordance with the provisions of this Article.

Section 157. Individuals Liable to Community Tax. – Every inhabitant of the Philippines eighteen (18) years of age or over who has been regularly employed on a wage or salary basis for at least thirty (30) consecutive working days during any calendar year, or who is engaged in business or occupation, or who owns real property with an aggregate assessed value of One thousand pesos (P1,000.00) or more, or who is required by law to file an income tax return shall pay an annual additional tax of Five pesos (P5.00) and an annual additional tax of One peso (P1.00) for every One thousand pesos (P1,000.00) of income regardless of whether from business, exercise of profession or from property which in no case shall exceed Five thousand pesos (P5,000.00).

In the case of husband and wife, the additional tax herein imposed shall be based upon the total property owned by them and the total gross receipts or earnings derived by them.

Section 158. Juridical Persons Liable to Community Tax. – Every corporation no matter how created or organized, whether domestic or resident foreign, engaged in or doing business in the Philippines shall pay an annual community tax of Five hundred pesos (P500.00) and an annual additional tax, which, in no case, shall exceed Ten thousand pesos (P10,000.00) in accordance with the following schedule:

(1) For every Five thousand pesos (P5,000.00) worth of real property in the Philippines owned by it during the preceding year based on the valuation used for the payment of real property tax under existing laws, found in the assessment rolls of the city or municipality where the real property is situated – Two pesos (P2.00); and

(2) For every Five thousand pesos (P5,000.00) of gross receipts or earnings derived by it from its business in the Philippines during the preceding year – Two pesos (P2.00).

The dividends received by a corporation from another corporation however shall, for the purpose of the additional tax, be considered as part of the gross receipts or earnings of said corporation.

Section 159. Exemptions. – The following are exempt from the community tax:

(1) Diplomatic and consular representatives; and

(2) Transient visitors when their stay in the Philippines does not exceed three (3) months.

Section 160. Place of Payment. – The community tax shall be paid in the place of residence of the individual, or in the place where the principal office of the juridical entity is located.

Section 161. Time for Payment; Penalties for Delinquency.

(a) The community tax shall accrue on the first (1st) day of January of each year which shall be paid not later than the last day of February of each year. If a person reaches the age of eighteen (18) years or otherwise loses the benefit of exemption on or before the last day of June, he shall be liable for the community tax on the day he reaches such age or upon the day the exemption ends. However, if a person reaches the age of eighteen (18) years or loses the benefit of exemption on or before the last day of March, he shall have twenty (20) days to pay the community tax without becoming delinquent.

Persons who come to reside in the Philippines or reach the age of eighteen (18) years on or after the first (1st) day of July of any year, or who cease to belong to an exempt class or after the same date, shall not be subject to the community tax for that year.

(b) Corporations established and organized on or before the last day of June shall be liable for the community tax for that year. But corporations established and organized on or before the last day of March shall have twenty (20) days within which to pay the community tax without becoming delinquent. Corporations established and organized on or after the first day of July shall not be subject to the community tax for that year.

If the tax is not paid within the time prescribed above, there shall be added to the unpaid amount an interest of twenty-four percent (24%) per annum from the due date until it is paid.

Section 162. Community Tax Certificate. – A community tax certificate shall be issued to every person or corporation upon payment of the community tax. A community tax certificate may also be issued to any person or corporation not subject to the community tax upon payment of One peso (P1.00).

Section 163. Presentation of Community Tax Certificate On Certain Occasions.

(a) When an individual subject to the community tax acknowledges any document before a notary public, takes the oath of office upon election or appointment to any position in the government service; receives any license, certificate. or permit from any public authority; pays any tax or free; receives any money from any public fund; transacts other official business; or receives any salary or wage from any person or corporation with whom such transaction is made or business done or from whom any salary or wage is received to require such individual to exhibit the community tax certificate.

The presentation of community tax certificate shall not be required in connection with the registration of a voter.

(b) When, through its authorized officers, any corporation subject to the community tax receives any license, certificate, or permit from any public authority, pays any tax or fee, receives money from public funds, or transacts other official business, it shall be the duty of the public official with whom such transaction is made or business done, to require such corporation to exhibit the community tax certificate.

(c) The community tax certificate required in the two preceding paragraphs shall be the one issued for the current year, except for the period from January until the fifteenth (15th) of April each year, in which case, the certificate issued for the preceding year shall suffice.

Section 164. Printing of Community Tax Certificates and Distribution of Proceeds.

(a) The Bureau of Internal Revenue shall cause the printing of community tax certificates and distribute the same to the cities and municipalities through the city and municipal treasurers in accordance with prescribed regulations.

The proceeds of the tax shall accrue to the general funds of the cities, municipalities and barangays except a portion thereof which shall accrue to the general fund of the national government to cover the actual cost of printing and distribution of the forms and other related expenses. The city or municipal treasurer concerned shall remit to the national treasurer the said share of the national government in the proceeds of the tax within ten (10) days after the end of each quarter.

(b) The city or municipal treasurer shall deputize the barangay treasurer to collect the community tax in their respective jurisdictions: Provided, however, That said barangay treasurer shall be bonded in accordance with existing laws.

(c) The proceeds of the community tax actually and directly collected by the city or municipal treasurer shall accrue entirely to the general fund of the city or municipality concerned. However, proceeds of the community tax collected through the barangay treasurers shall be apportioned as follows:

(1) Fifty percent (50%) shall accrue to the general fund of the city or municipality concerned; and

(2) Fifty percent (50%) shall accrue to the barangay where the tax is collected.

CHAPTER III
Collection of Taxes

Section 165. Tax Period and Manner of Payment. – Unless otherwise provided in this Code, the tax period of all local taxes, fees and charges shall be the calendar year. Such taxes, fees and charges may be paid in quarterly installments.

Section 166. Accrual of Tax. – Unless otherwise provided in this Code, all local taxes, fees, and charges shall accrue on the first (1st) day of January of each year. However, new taxes, fees or charges, or changes in the rates thereof, shall accrue on the first (1st) day of the quarter next following the effectivity of the ordinance imposing such new levies or rates.

Section 167. Time of Payment. – Unless otherwise provided in this Code, all local taxes, fees, and charges shall be paid within the first twenty (20) days of January or of each subsequent quarter, as the case may be. The sanggunian concerned may, for a justifiable reason or cause, extend the time for payment of such taxes, fees, or charges without surcharges or penalties, but only for a period not exceeding six (6) months.

Section 168. Surcharges and Penalties on Unpaid Taxes, Fees, or Charges. – The sanggunian may impose a surcharge not exceeding twenty-five (25%) of the amount of taxes, fees or charges not paid on time and an interest at the rate not exceeding two percent (2%) per month of the unpaid taxes, fees or charges including surcharges, until such amount is fully paid but in no case shall the total thirty-six (36%) months.

Section 169. Interests on Other Unpaid Revenues. – Where the amount of any other revenue due a local government unit, except voluntary contributions or donations, is not paid on the date fixed in the ordinance, or in the contract, expressed or implied, or upon the occurrence of the event which has given rise to its collection, there shall be collected as part of that amount an interest thereon at the rate not exceeding two percent (2%) per month from the date it is due until it is paid, but in no case shall the total interest on the unpaid amount or a portion thereof exceed thirty-six (36) months.

Section 170. Collection of Local Revenue by Treasurer. – All local taxes, fees, and charges shall be collected by the provincial, city, municipal, or barangay treasurer, or their duly authorized deputies.

The provincial, city or municipal treasurer may designate the barangay treasurer as his deputy to collect local taxes, fees, or charges. In case a bond is required for the purpose, the provincial, city or municipal government shall pay the premiums thereon in addition to the premiums of bond that may be required under this Code.

Section 171. Examination of Books of Accounts and Pertinent Records of Businessmen by Local Treasurer. – The provincial, city, municipal or barangay treasurer may, by himself or through any of his deputies duly authorized in writing, examine the books, accounts, and other pertinent records of any person, partnership, corporation, or association subject to local taxes, fees and charges in order to ascertain. assess, and collect the correct amount of the tax, fee, or charge. Such examination shall be made during regular business hours, only once for every tax period, and shall be certified to by the examining official. Such certificate shall be made of record in the books of accounts of the taxpayer examined.

In case the examination herein authorized is made by a duly authorized deputy of the local treasurer, the written authority of the deputy concerned shall specifically state the name, address, and business of the taxpayer whose books, accounts, and pertinent records are to be examined, the date and place of such examination and the procedure to be followed in conducting the same.

For this purpose, the records of the revenue district office of the Bureau of Internal Revenue shall be made available to the local treasurer, his deputy or duly authorized representative.

CHAPTER IV
Civil Remedies for Collection of Revenues

Section 172. Application of Chapter. – The provisions of this Chapter and the remedies provided hereon may be availed of for the collection of any delinquent local tax, fee, charge, or other revenue.

Section 173. Local Government’s Lien. – Local taxes, fees, charges and other revenues constitute a lien, superior to all liens, charges or encumbrances in favor of any person, enforceable by appropriate administrative or judicial action, not only upon any property or rights therein which may be subject to the lien but also upon property used in business, occupation, practice of profession or calling, or exercise of privilege with respect to which the lien is imposed. The lien may only be extinguished upon full payment of the delinquent local taxes fees and charges including related surcharges and interest.

Section 174. Civil Remedies. – The civil remedies for the collection of local taxes, fees, or charges, and related surcharges and interest resulting from delinquency shall be:

(a) By administrative action thru distraint of goods, chattels, or effects, and other personal property of whatever character, including stocks and other securities, debts, credits, bank accounts, and interest in and rights to personal property, and by levy upon real property and interest in or rights to real property;

(b) By judicial action.

Either of these remedies or all may be pursued concurrently or simultaneously at the discretion of the local government unit concerned.

Section 175. Distraint of Personal Property. – The remedy by distraint shall proceed as follows:

(a) Seizure – Upon failure of the person owing any local tax, fee, or charge to pay the same at the time required, the local treasurer or his deputy may, upon written notice, seize or confiscate any personal property belonging to that person or any personal property subject to the lien in sufficient quantity to satisfy the tax, fee, or charge in question, together with any increment thereto incident to delinquency and the expenses of seizure. In such case, the local treasurer or his deputy shall issue a duly authenticated certificate based upon the records of his office showing the fact of delinquency and the amounts of the tax, fee, or charge and penalty due. Such certificate shall serve as sufficient warrant for the distraint of personal property aforementioned, subject to the taxpayer’s right to claim exemption under the provisions of existing laws. Distrained personal property shall be sold at public auction in the manner hereon provided for.

(b) Accounting of distrained goods. – The officer executing the distraint shall make or cause to be made an account of the goods, chattels or effects distrained, a copy of which signed by himself shall be left either with the owner or person from whose possession the goods, chattels or effects are taken, or at the dwelling or place or business of that person and with someone of suitable age and discretion, to which list shall be added a statement of the sum demanded and a note of the time and place of sale.

(c) Publication – The officer shall forthwith cause a notification to be exhibited in not less than three (3) public and conspicuous places in the territory of the local government unit where the distraint is made, specifying the time and place of sale, and the articles distrained. The time of sale shall not be less than twenty (20) days after the notice to the owner or possessor of the property as above specified and the publication or posting of the notice. One place for the posting of the notice shall be at the office of the chief executive of the local government unit in which the property is distrained.

(d) Release of distrained property upon payment prior to sale – If at any time prior to the consummation of the sale, all the proper charges are paid to the officer conducting the sale, the goods or effects distrained shall be restored to the owner.

(e) Procedure of sale – At the time and place fixed in the notice, the officer conducting the sale shall sell the goods or effects so distrained at public auction to the highest bidder for cash. Within five (5) days after the sale, the local treasurer shall make a report of the proceedings in writing to the local chief executive concerned.

Should the property distrained be not disposed of within one hundred and twenty (120) days from the date of distraint, the same shall be considered as sold to the local government unit concerned for the amount of the assessment made thereon by the Committee on Appraisal and to the extent of the same amount, the tax delinquencies shall be cancelled.

Said Committee on Appraisal shall be composed of the city or municipal treasurer as chairman, with a representative of the Commission on Audit and the city or municipal assessor as members.

(f) Disposition of proceeds – The proceeds of the sale shall be applied to satisfy the tax, including the surcharges, interest, and other penalties incident to delinquency, and the expenses of the distraint and sale. The balance over and above what is required to pay the entire claim shall be returned to the owner of the property sold. The expenses chargeable upon the seizure and sale shall embrace only the actual expenses of seizure and preservation of the property pending the sale, and no charge shall be imposed for the services of the local officer or his deputy. Where the proceeds of the sale are insufficient to satisfy the claim, other property may, in like manner, be distrained until the full amount due, including all expenses, is collected.

Section 176. Levy on Real Property. – After the expiration of the time required to pay the delinquent tax, fee, or charge, real property may be levied on before, simultaneously, or after the distraint of personal property belonging to the delinquent taxpayer. To this end, the provincial, city or municipal treasurer, as the case may be, shall prepare a duly authenticated certificate showing the name of the taxpayer and the amount of the tax, fee, or charge, and penalty due from him. Said certificate shall operate with the force of a legal execution throughout the Philippines. Levy shall be effected by writing upon said certificate the description of the property upon which levy is made. At the same time, written notice of the levy shall be mailed to or served upon the assessor and the Register of Deeds of the province or city where the property is located who shall annotate the levy on the tax declaration and certificate of title of the property, respectively, and the delinquent taxpayer or, if he be absent from the Philippines, to his agent or the manager of the business in respect to which the liability arose, or if there be none, to the occupant of the property in question.

In case the levy on real property is not issued before or simultaneously with the warrant of distraint on personal property, and the personal property of the taxpayer is not sufficient to satisfy his delinquency, the provincial, city or municipal treasurer, as the case may be, shall within thirty (30) days after execution of the distraint, proceed with the levy on the taxpayer’s real property.

A report on any levy shall, within ten (10) days after receipt of the warrant, be submitted by the levying officer to the sanggunian concerned.

Section 177. Penalty for Failure to Issue and Execute Warrant. – Without prejudice to criminal prosecution under the Revised Penal Code and other applicable laws, any local treasurer who fails to issue or execute the warrant of distraint or levy after the expiration of the time prescribed, or who is found guilty of abusing the exercise thereof by competent authority shall be automatically dismissed from the service after due notice and hearing.

Section 178. Advertisement and Sale. – Within thirty (30) days after the levy, the local treasurer shall proceed to publicly advertise for sale or auction the property or a usable portion thereof as may be necessary to satisfy the claim and cost of sale; and such advertisement shall cover a period of at least thirty (30) days. It shall be effected by posting a notice at the main entrance of the municipal building or city hall, and in a public and conspicuous place in the barangay where the real property is located, and by publication once a week for three (3) weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the province, city or municipality where the property is located. The advertisement shall contain the amount of taxes, fees or charges, and penalties due thereon, and the time and place of sale, the name of the taxpayer against whom the taxes, fees, or charges are levied, and a short description of the property to be sold. At any time before the date fixed for the sale, the taxpayer may stay they proceedings by paying the taxes, fees, charges, penalties and interests. If he fails to do so, the sale shall proceed and shall be held either at the main entrance of the provincial, city or municipal building, or on the property to be sold, or at any other place as determined by the local treasurer conducting the sale and specified in the notice of sale.

Within thirty (30) days after the sale, the local treasurer or his deputy shall make a report of the sale to the sanggunian concerned, and which shall form part of his records. After consultation with the sanggunian, the local treasurer shall make and deliver to the purchaser a certificate of sale, showing the proceeding of the sale, describing the property sold, stating the name of the purchaser and setting out the exact amount of all taxes, fees, charges, and related surcharges, interests, or penalties: Provided, however, That any excess in the proceeds of the sale over the claim and cost of sales shall be turned over to the owner of the property.

The local treasurer may, by ordinance duly approved, advance an amount sufficient to defray the costs of collection by means of the remedies provided for in this Title, including the preservation or transportation in case of personal property, and the advertisement and subsequent sale, in cases of personal and real property including improvements thereon.

Section 179. Redemption of Property Sold. – Within one (1) year from the date of sale, the delinquent taxpayer or his representative shall have the right to redeem the property upon payment to the local treasurer of the total amount of taxes, fees, or charges, and related surcharges, interests or penalties from the date of delinquency to the date of sale, plus interest of not more than two percent (2%) per month on the purchase price from the date of purchase to the date of redemption. Such payment shall invalidate the certificate of sale issued to the purchaser and the owner shall be entitled to a certificate of redemption from the provincial, city or municipal treasurer or his deputy.

The provincial, city or municipal treasurer or his deputy, upon surrender by the purchaser of the certificate of sale previously issued to him, shall forthwith return to the latter the entire purchase price paid by him plus the interest of not more than two percent (2%) per month herein provided for, the portion of the cost of sale and other legitimate expenses incurred by him, and said property thereafter shall be free from the lien of such taxes, fees, or charges, related surcharges, interests, and penalties.

The owner shall not, however, be deprived of the possession of said property and shall be entitled to the rentals and other income thereof until the expiration of the time allowed for its redemption.

Section 180. Final Deed to Purchaser. – In case the taxpayer fails to redeem the property as provided herein, the local treasurer shall execute a deed conveying to the purchaser so much of the property as has been sold, free from liens of any taxes, fees, charges, related surcharges, interests, and penalties. The deed shall succinctly recite all the proceedings upon which the validity of the sale depends.

Section 181. Purchase of Property By the Local Government Units for Want of Bidder. – In case there is no bidder for the real property advertised for sale as provided herein, or if the highest bid is for an amount insufficient to pay the taxes, fees, or charges, related surcharges, interests, penalties and costs, the local treasurer conducting the sale shall purchase the property in behalf of the local government unit concerned to satisfy the claim and within two (2) days thereafter shall make a report of his proceedings which shall be reflected upon the records of his office. It shall be the duty of the Registrar of Deeds concerned upon registration with his office of any such declaration of forfeiture to transfer the title of the forfeited property to the local government unit concerned without the necessity of an order from a competent court.

Within one (1) year from the date of such forfeiture, the taxpayer or any of his representative, may redeem the property by paying to the local treasurer the full amount of the taxes, fees, charges, and related surcharges, interests, or penalties, and the costs of sale. If the property is not redeemed as provided herein, the ownership thereof shall be fully vested on the local government unit concerned.

Section 182. Resale of Real Estate Taken for Taxes, Fees, or Charges. – The sanggunian concerned may, by ordinance duly approved, and upon notice of not less than twenty (20) days, sell and dispose of the real property acquired under the preceding section at public auction. The proceeds of the sale shall accrue to the general fund of the local government unit concerned.

Section 183. Collection of Delinquent Taxes, Fees, Charges or other Revenues through Judicial Action. – The local government unit concerned may enforce the collection of delinquent taxes, fees, charges or other revenues by civil action in any court of competent jurisdiction. The civil action shall be filed by the local treasurer within the period prescribed in Section 194 of this Code.

Section 184. Further Distraint or Levy. – The remedies by distraint and levy may be repeated if necessary until the full amount due, including all expenses, is collected.

Section 185. Personal Property Exempt from Distraint or Levy. – The following property shall be exempt from distraint and the levy, attachment or execution thereof for delinquency in the payment of any local tax, fee or charge, including the related surcharge and interest:

(a) Tools and implements necessarily used by the delinquent taxpayer in his trade or employment;

(b) One (1) horse, cow, carabao, or other beast of burden, such as the delinquent taxpayer may select, and necessarily used by him in his ordinary occupation;

(c) His necessary clothing, and that of all his family;

(d) Household furniture and utensils necessary for housekeeping and used for that purpose by the delinquent taxpayer, such as he may select, of a value not exceeding Ten thousand pesos (P10,000.00);

(e) Provisions, including crops, actually provided for individual or family use sufficient for four (4) months;

(f) The professional libraries of doctors, engineers, lawyers and judges;

(g) One fishing boat and net, not exceeding the total value of Ten thousand pesos (P10,000.00), by the lawful use of which a fisherman earns his livelihood; and

(h) Any material or article forming part of a house or improvement of any real property.

CHAPTER V
Miscellaneous Provisions

Section 186. Power To Levy Other Taxes, Fees or Charges. – Local government units may exercise the power to levy taxes, fees or charges on any base or subject not otherwise specifically enumerated herein or taxed under the provisions of the National Internal Revenue Code, as amended, or other applicable laws: Provided, That the taxes, fees, or charges shall not be unjust, excessive, oppressive, confiscatory or contrary to declared national policy: Provided, further, That the ordinance levying such taxes, fees or charges shall not be enacted without any prior public hearing conducted for the purpose.

Section 187. Procedure for Approval and Effectivity of Tax, Ordinances and Revenue Measures; Mandatory Public Hearings. – The procedure for approval of local tax ordinances and revenue measures shall be in accordance with the provisions of this Code: Provided, That public hearings shall be conducted for the purpose prior to the enactment thereof: Provided, further, That any question on the constitutionality or legality of tax ordinances or revenue measures may be raised on appeal within thirty (30) days from the effectivity thereof to the Secretary of Justice who shall render a decision within sixty (60) days from the date of receipt of the appeal: Provided, however, That such appeal shall not have the effect of suspending the effectivity of the ordinance and the accrual and payment of the tax, fee, or charge levied therein: Provided, finally, That within thirty (30) days after receipt of the decision or the lapse of the sixty-day period without the Secretary of Justice acting upon the appeal, the aggrieved party may file appropriate proceedings with a court of competent jurisdiction.

Section 188. Publication of Tax Ordinances and Revenue Measures. – Within ten (10) days after their approval, certified true copies of all provincial, city, and municipal tax ordinances or revenue measures shall be published in full for three (3) consecutive days in a newspaper of local circulation: Provided, however, That in provinces, cities and municipalities where there are no newspapers of local circulation, the same may be posted in at least two (2) conspicuous and publicly accessible places.

Section 189. Furnishing of Copies of Tax Ordinances and Revenue Measures. – Copies of all provincial, city, and municipal and barangay tax ordinances and revenue measures shall be furnished the respective local treasurers for public dissemination.

Section 190. Attempt to Enforce Void or Suspended Tax Ordinances and revenue measures. – The enforcement of any tax ordinance or revenue measure after due notice of the disapproval or suspension thereof shall be sufficient ground for administrative disciplinary action against the local officials and employees responsible therefor.

Section 191. Authority of Local Government Units to Adjust Rates of Tax Ordinances. – Local government units shall have the authority to adjust the tax rates as prescribed herein not oftener than once every five (5) years, but in no case shall such adjustment exceed ten percent (10%) of the rates fixed under this Code.

Section 192. Authority to Grant Tax Exemption Privileges. – Local government units may, through ordinances duly approved, grant tax exemptions, incentives or reliefs under such terms and conditions as they may deem necessary.

Section 193. Withdrawal of Tax Exemption Privileges. – Unless otherwise provided in this Code, tax exemptions or incentives granted to, or presently enjoyed by all persons, whether natural or juridical, including government-owned or controlled corporations, except local water districts, cooperatives duly registered under R.A. No. 6938, non-stock and non-profit hospitals and educational institutions, are hereby withdrawn upon the effectivity of this Code.

CHAPTER VI
Taxpayer’s Remedies

Section 194. Periods of Assessment and Collection.

(a) Local taxes, fees, or charges shall be assessed within five (5) years from the date they became due. No action for the collection of such taxes, fees, or charges, whether administrative or judicial, shall be instituted after the expiration of such period: Provided, That. taxes, fees or charges which have accrued before the effectivity of this Code may be assessed within a period of three (3) years from the date they became due.

(b) In case of fraud or intent to evade the payment of taxes, fees, or charges, the same may be assessed within ten (10) years from discovery of the fraud or intent to evade payment.

(c) Local taxes, fees, or charges may be collected within five (5) years from the date of assessment by administrative or judicial action. No such action shall be instituted after the expiration of said period: Provided, however, That, taxes, fees or charges assessed before the effectivity of this Code may be collected within a period of three (3) years from the date of assessment.

(d) The running of the periods of prescription provided in the preceding paragraphs shall be suspended for the time during which:

(1) The treasurer is legally prevented from making the assessment of collection;

(2) The taxpayer requests for a reinvestigation and executes a waiver in writing before expiration of the period within which to assess or collect; and

(3) The taxpayer is out of the country or otherwise cannot be located.

Section 195. Protest of Assessment. – When the local treasurer or his duly authorized representative finds that correct taxes, fees, or charges have not been paid, he shall issue a notice of assessment stating the nature of the tax, fee, or charge, the amount of deficiency, the surcharges, interests and penalties. Within sixty (60) days from the receipt of the notice of assessment, the taxpayer may file a written protest with the local treasurer contesting the assessment; otherwise, the assessment shall become final and executory. The local treasurer shall decide the protest within sixty (60) days from the time of its filing. If the local treasurer finds the protest to be wholly or partly meritorious, he shall issue a notice cancelling wholly or partially the assessment. However, if the local treasurer finds the assessment to be wholly or partly correct, he shall deny the protest wholly or partly with notice to the taxpayer. The taxpayer shall have thirty (30) days from the receipt of the denial of the protest or from the lapse of the sixty (60) day period prescribed herein within which to appeal with the court of competent jurisdiction otherwise the assessment becomes conclusive and unappealable.

Section 196. Claim for Refund of Tax Credit. – No case or proceeding shall be maintained in any court for the recovery of any tax, fee, or charge erroneously or illegally collected until a written claim for refund or credit has been filed with the local treasurer. No case or proceeding shall be entertained in any court after the expiration of two (2) years from the date of the payment of such tax, fee, or charge, or from the date the taxpayer is entitled to a refund or credit.

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